If you are using existing databases with an application server, you might want to consider a Java Data Objects (JDO) interface. JDO allows you to move the mapping of data from the application server or application side to one location. This differs from Using JDBC with Application Servers or Using SQLJ with Application Servers. With JDBC, the mapping needs to be done above the JDBC interface. With JDO, the mapping is done below the JDO interface.
JDO is considered a form of transparent persistence. For more information on how transparent persistence compares to JDBC, see transparent persistence vs. JDBC call-level interface.
Also, be sure to check out how JDO can be part of integrated J2EE Architecture Solutions.
Using JDO, as shown in this diagram, will require data conversion between the interface and the database. See JDO Data Conversion.
Context for Using JDO with Application Servers
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The Savvy Manager's Guide
Douglas K Barry is also the author of a book that explains Web Services, service-oriented architecture, and Cloud Computing in an easy-to-understand, non-technical manner.
Web Services, Service-Oriented Architectures, and Cloud Computing: The Savvy Manager's Guide (Second Edition)
by Douglas K Barry with David Dick
This is a guide for the savvy manager who wants to capitalize on the wave of change that is occurring with Web Services, service-oriented architecture, and—more recently—Cloud Computing. The changes wrought by these technologies will require both a basic grasp of the technologies and an effective way to deal with how these changes will affect the people who build and use the systems in our organizations. This book covers both issues. Managers at all levels of all organizations must be aware of both the changes that we are now seeing and ways to deal with issues created by those changes.